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COVID-19 Vaccination Misinformation, Disinformation & Fake News

COVID-19 vaccinations have been administered to billions of people around the world, with numbers increasing daily. In countries where vaccinations have been rolled out successfully, there are fewer infections, hospitalisations and deaths, and those who have been double-jabbed but caught the virus tend to suffer fewer life-changing effects. In general, in countries without vaccination programmes, […]

Pet Scams

Pet scams take place when you see a pet advertised online, are asked to pay a deposit or full price of the pet, only to find that the pet you have purchased does not exist, and you have been defrauded.

Delivery Scams

Restrictions introduced during the COVID-19 pandemic have resulted in a massive increase in online purchases and in turn, home deliveries, a trend which is here to stay owing to the convenience and choice it brings. Unfortunately, however, this has created an ideal opportunity for fraudsters.

Investment Scams

Investment scams involve criminals contacting people randomly to persuade them to put their money into investment schemes or products that are either non-existent, or do exist but are worthless. Traditionally, sales pitches promise substantial returns with very little risk, but increasingly, ‘returns’ are decreasing to make the story more credible.

TV Licensing Scams

TV Licensing is one of the organisations that scammers frequently try to impersonate. Fraudulent TV Licensing communications are increasingly sent via online means.


Fleeceware is the name given to mobile apps which overcharge users for functions or features that are widely available in free or other low-cost alternatives. In fact, they are developed with the sole purpose of doing so. Typically, the apps cater for hobbies such as photography and music, but have also been found in QR […]

Two-Factor Authentication

Two-factor authentication – often abbreviated to 2FA – is when a second step is added to the process of logging into your online accounts which require confidentiality, as an additional security layer. These include your email accounts, bank accounts, social media and other websites where you have to log in securely with a username (or […]

Online Gender-Based Violence

The internet has transformed our ability to obtain information, communicate with others, express our views, share our experiences and engage in conversations about any topic of our choice. Technology has made it possible to reach vast audiences at once, or just individuals or small groups. In turn, this accessibility and freedom of expression play a […]

Pyramid Schemes

A pyramid scheme is a type of scam that promises the victim a fast and substantial return on an investment of money which is paid to the person ‘above’ them in the pyramid. The victim is also required to recruit a number of people to be ‘beneath’ them in the pyramid, in turn collecting their […]

Viruses & Spyware

A virus is a file written with the sole intention of doing harm, or for criminal activity. There are many types of virus. Viruses and spyware are also known as ‘malware’